Antennas and wave Propagation (EC-6003) - B.E RGPV CBCS & CBGS Scheme Notes -->

## Syllabus

UNIT 1:
Potential function and the Electromagnetic field, potential functions for Sinusoidal Oscillations, retarded potential, the Alternating current element (or oscillating Electric Dipole), Power radiated by a current element, Application to short antennas, Assumed current distribution, Radiation from a Quarter wavemonopole or Half wave dipole, sine and cosine integral, Electromagnetic field close to an antenna, Solution of the potential equations, Far-field Approximation.

UNIT 2:
Antenna Fundamentals
Introduction, network theorems, directional properties of dipole antennas, travelling –wave antennas and effect of feed on standing-wave antennas, two –element array, horizontal patterns in broad-cast arrays, linear arrays, multiplication of patterns ,effect of earth on vertical patterns, Binomial array, antenna gain, effective area.

UNIT 3:
Types of antennas
Babinet’s principles and complementary antenna, horn antenna, parabolic reflector antenna, slot antenna, log periodic antenna, loop antenna, helical antenna, biconical antenna, folded dipole antenna, Yagi-Uda antenna, lens antenna, turnstile antenna. Long wire antenna: resonant and travelling wave antennas for different wave lengths, V-antenna, rhombic antenna, beverage antenna, microstrip antenna.

UNIT 4:
Antenna array synthesis
Introduction, retarded potentials, array structures, weighting functions, linear array analysis, different forms of linear arrays, Schelknoff unit circle, linear array synthesis, sum and difference patterns, DolphChebychev synthesis of sum pattern, Taylor synthesis of sum patterns, Bayliss synthesis of difference patterns, planar arrays, arrays with rectangular boundary.

UNIT 5:
Fundamentals of electromagnetic waves, effects of the environment, modes of propagation. Ground wave propagation- Introduction, plane earth reflection, space wave and surface wave, transition between surface and space wave, tilt of wave front due to ground losses. Space wave propagation- Introduction, field strength relation, effects of imperfect earth, curvature of earth and interference zone, shadowing effect of hills and buildings, absorption by atmospheric phenomena, variation of field strength with height, super refraction, scattering, tropospheric propagation, fading, path loss calculations.
Sky wave propagation- Introduction, structural details of the ionosphere, wave propagation mechanism, refraction and reflection of sky waves by ionosphere, ray path, critical frequency, MUF, LUF, OF, virtual height, skip distance, relation between MUF and skip distance.

• Unit 1
• Unit 2
• Unit 3
• Unit 4
• Unit 5

## Books Recommended

1. Jordan and Balmain: Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating System, PHI Learning.
2. Krauss: Antennas and wave propagation, TMH.
3. Balanis: Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.
4. Harish and Sachidananda: Antennas and wave propagation, Oxford University Press.
5. Raju: Antennas and Wave Propagation, Pearson Education.
6. Kennedy: Electronic Communication Systems, TMH.

## List of Experiments:

1. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of an Omni Directional Antenna.
2. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Directional Antenna.
3. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Parabolic Reflector Antenna.
4. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Log Periodic Antenna.
5. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Patch Antenna.
6. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Dipole/ Folded Dipole Antenna.
7. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Yagi (3-EL/4EL) Antenna.
8. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Monopole/ WHIP/ Collinear Antenna.
10. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Square Loop Antenna.

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