##### Fluid Mechanics (CE-3002)

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# RGPV notes CBGS Bachelor of engineering

## COURSE OBJECTIVE

To understand the basic concepts of fluid mechanics for undergraduate students in Civil Engineering. The course will begin with the fundamental concepts of fluid flow and proceed to cover various flow phenomena and approaches to analyse the flow phenomena. Some important applications shall also be covered.

## Syllabus

**UNIT 1:**

Fundamental Fluid Properties: Engineering units of measurement, mass, density, specific weight,
specific volume, specific gravity, surface tension, capillarity, viscosity, bulk modulus of elasticity,
pressure and vapour pressure. Fluid Statics: Pressure at a point, pressure variation in static fluid,
Absolute and gauge pressure, manometers, Forces on plane and curved surfaces (Problems on Gravity
Dams and Tainter Gates), buoyant force, stability of floating and submerged bodies, relative equilibrium.

**UNIT 2**:

Kinematics and Dynamics of Flow: Introduction to basic lines - Streamlines, Streaklines, Pathlines.
Various types of fluid flow. Velocity potential function, Stream function, Vorticity and Circulation,
Flow net. Basic equations of fluid flow like Energy equation, continuity equation and momentum
equation. Bernoulli’s equation and its applications.

**UNIT 3**:

Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow: Introduction to laminar & turbulent flow, Reynolds experiment &
Reynolds number. Velocity distribution, Laminar and turbulent boundary layers and laminar sublayer,
boundary layer concept, aging of pipes. Losses due to sudden expansion and contraction, losses in pipe
fittings andvalves, concepts of equivalent length, hydraulic and energy gradient lines, siphon, pipes in
series, pipes in parallel, branching of pipes. Concept of Water Hammer transmission of power.

**UNIT 4**:

Open channels: Channel geometry and elements of channel section, velocity distribution, energy in open
channel flow, specific energy, types of flow, critical flow and its computations, uniform flow and its
computations, Chezy’s and Manning’s formulae, determination of normal depth and velocity, Normal
and critical slopes, Economical sections. Basic assumptions and dynamic equations of gradually varied
flow, characteristics analysis and computations of flow profiles, rapidly varied flow hydraulic jump in
rectangular channels and its basic characteristics, surges in open channels & channel flow routing.

**UNIT 5**:

Forces on immersed bodies: Types of drag, drag on a sphere, a flat plate, a cylinder and anaerofoil
development of lift, lifting vanes, Magnus effect.

Fluid Machines: Turbines: Classifications, definitions, similarity laws, specific speed and unit quantities,
Pelton-wheel turbine-their construction and settings, speed regulation, dimensions of various elements,
Action of jet, torque, power and efficiency for ideal case, characteristic curves. Reaction turbines:
construction & setting, draft tube theory, runaway speed, simple theory of design and characteristic curves,
cavitation.

## NOTES

**Unit 1****Unit 2****Unit 3****Unit 4****Unit 5**

## COURSE OUTCOME:-

Knowledge of the basic concepts and principles of fluid mechanics.

Ability to analyze fluid flow problems with the application of momentum and energy equations.

Ability to distinguish between various types of fluid flow.

Ability to find solutions to typical pipe flow problems

Basic knowledge of hydraulic machines.

## REFERENCES

Modi & Seth , Hydraulics & Fluid Mechanics ,Rajson’s Publication Pvt Ltd

A K Jain, Fluid Mechanics: Including Hydraulic Machines, Khanna Publisher.

Subramanyam,Fluid Mechanics & hydraulic machines - - Tata McGraw-Hill

R.J.Garde , Engg Fluid Mechanics , SCITECH Publishers Pvt Ltd

Merle C. Potter, David C. Wiggert, Bassam H. Ramadan, Mechanics of Fluid, Cengage Learning.

John F. Douglas, J.M. Gasoriek, John Swaffield, Lynne Jack, Fluid Mechanics, Pearson Education.

K.R. Arora, Fluid Mechanics, Hydraulics and Hydraulic Machines, Standard Publishers
Distributors..

Balchandran, Engg Fluid Mechanics, PHI Learning Pvt Ltd

Ojha & Chandramouli , Fluid Mechanics & Machinery , Oxford University Press

Fox, Mc Donald, Pritchard Fluid Mechanicas– Wiley India, New Delhi.

Narsimhan S Fluid Mechanics –. – University Press, Mumbai.

Ratnam Chanamala kothapalli A.V. Fluid Mechanics & Machniery –– I.K. International, New
Delhi.

Flow Through Open Channel -- Tata McGraw-Hill

S K Som, G Biswas, Suman Chakraborty, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machines,
Tata McGraw Hill Education.

## LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:-

1. To Verify Bernoull’s equation.

2. To verify Impulse Imomentum equation.

3. To find out the terminal velocity of a spherical body in water.

4. Calibration and study of Venturimeter.

5. Determination of Cc, Cv, Cd of Orifices

6. Draw characteristics Curves of Pelton Wheel Turbine.

7. Draw characteristics Curves of Francis Turbine.

8. Draw characteristics Curves of Kaplan Turbine.

9. Calibration of Nozzle meter and Mouth Piece

10. Reynolds experiment for demonstration of stream lines & turbulent flow

11. Determination of metacentric height

12. Determination of Friction Factor of a pipe

13. Determination of coefficient of discharge for a broad crested weir & to plot water surface
profile over weir